• Stacks Image 2450
  • Stacks Image 2453
  • Stacks Image 2456
  • Stacks Image 2459
1MJ—South Galatia
Stacks Image 284
  • 1MJ South Galatia—Perge
    • South Galatia Perge—Perge Blog
      Stacks Image 2689
      Read our journal about our visit to Perge and surrounding territory, as well as see additional pictures and a movie at the end of the blog. Click image to open another browser window to read blog, or click here.
    • South Galatia Perge—Nymphaeum
      Stacks Image 2695
      A nymphaeum was a civic water fountain fed by a fresh water spring or river that was an expensive public works project funded by some benefactor of the city. The structure displayed artistic beauty and supplied fresh water for the use of citizens. The nymphaeum at Perge was unusual, as this fountain was the source of a large water channel that cascaded down the middle of the main colonnaded street, collecting in pools at regular intervals for almost a mile. These pools were stocked with fresh fish. Roman roads were so well travelled that the wagon wheels made ruts visible even today.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia Perge—Theater
      Stacks Image 2709
      The theater at Perge is not accessible to tourists. Some intrepid visitors with inquiring minds, however, and determination to plow through chest-high thorn bushes can gain a view of this grand ruin left today to the elements.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia Perge—Stadium
      Stacks Image 2715
      The second-century AD stadium at Perge with a capacity of 12,000 is second only to the stadium of Aphrodisias in size, and almost as well preserved. The stadium used a barrel-vaulted construction technique. The monumental entrance on the south end no longer survives. On the east side, the barrel vaults provided 20 rooms to house shops, whose shopkeeper’s name or trade is indicated in wall inscriptions.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia Perge—Roman Baths
      Stacks Image 3001
      Perge developed a number of monumental baths. The northwest cardo sported a bath dedicated to Nero in the middle, and at the end, a monumental bath graced with a monumental nyphaeum. The southeast cardo also had a bath near the ancient Hellenistic Gate, the main entrance into the city. This bath is well preserved and illustrates the multiple rooms of decreasing temperatures of steam heat (cauldarium, tepidarium, frigidarium), as well as the intricate underground operations that channeled the steam.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia Perge—Inscriptions
      Stacks Image 3008
      Perge reveals a number of important inscriptions. Those along the street north of the agora market are the most interesting in terms of honor and status claims for the ancient city itself. One inscription actually personifies Perge, while another can be read by a group out loud antiphonally to emphasize its dramatic impact.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia Perge—Plancia Magna
      Stacks Image 3015
      Plancia Magna was a wealthy patroness and native of Perge. She had royal blood, high family status, and great power and influence in Asia. Her father was the Roman senator and proconsul Marcus Plancius Varus, and her mother the Herodian princess Julia. Her brother also was a Roman senator. Her maternal grandfather was King Tigranes of Armenia, and earlier maternal ancestors included King Archelaus of Cappadocia and Herod the Great of Judea with his wife, Mariamne. Her mother was priestess of Artemis in Perge, while Magna herself became high priestess three times over, not only of Artemis, but of the imperial cult and of the mother of the gods. Plancia Magna, her brother, and maternal cousins are the last known descendants of the Herodian dynasty. Inscriptions document that Plancia Magna and her family were extraordinarily civic minded, charitable, and generous, so much so that they gained status as “second founders” of Perge, with the honorific title “Ktistes” (“Founder”). One of her most significant benefactions was beautifying the Hellenistic Gate, restoring the side towers and courtyard with a two-tiered triumphal arch and statuary to Greek gods and goddesses, including the Roman imperial family. The Boule, Demos, and Gerousia of Perge gave her the honorific title “Demiourgos,” the highest public office in government, which meant that she sponsored the local games held in Perge. The picture is a statue of Plancia Magna held in the Antalya Museum.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia Perge—Nearby Ariassos
      Stacks Image 3022
      Ariassos is perched dramatically on a steep hillside in the mountains surrounding Perge on the Pamphylian plain. Not mentioned often in ancient sources, Ariassos as part of Pisidia moved from Seleucid to Pergameme to Roman control (when Attalus III left his kingdom to Rome 133 BC). Augustus incorporated Ariassos into the Roman province of Galatia. The best preserved ruin is the triple arch gate that had four statues. The gate used to have important inscriptions illustrating Roman empire rule, but these inscription blocks have been removed. By whom is unknown.
      00:00
      00:00
  • 1MJ South Galatia—Perge 1MJ
    • South Galatia Perge 1MJ—Northwest Gate
      Stacks Image 2727
      The main street of Perge intersects with another street heading northwest near the monumental nymphaeum supplying water for the street’s cascading canal. As one turns left to head down this intersecting street, one passes the baths of Nero. At the end of the street one is greeted by another monumental nymphaeum that supplies even more Roman baths. Across from this nymphaeum is the northwest gate heading out of town toward the Pisidian highlands. Through this gate Paul and Barnabas would have traveled to make their way to Pisidian Antioch on the 1MJ.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia Perge 1MJ—Via Sebaste
      Stacks Image 2733
      Paul and Barnabas leave Perge on the 1MJ heading inland for the highlands of Pisidian Antioch. Coming out of the northwest gate, they have two options. One option is the central road straight up into the highlands. This route is shorter, but also much more difficult due to the steep climbs and uphill journey all the way. The other road is the main Roman road, the Via Sebaste more to the west. This route is longer, but a much easier ascent into the mountains. Portions of the Via Sebaste are still in tack to this day, including the first pass out of the Pamphylian plain into the Taurus Mountains with several inscriptions along the road and the first traveler's rest stop and spring water well.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia Perge 1MJ—Via Sebaste Inscriptions
      Stacks Image 3030
      One of two roads Paul and Barnabas may have taken out of Perge on the way to Pisidian Antioch is the Via Sebaste. A portion of this ancient road is still preserved in the first pass out of the Pamphylian plain into the Taurus Mountains. Inscriptions are viewable that document society, Roman milestones, and repair of the Via Sebaste by emperor Vespasian. The Vespasian inscription also provides the earliest datable evidence that Lycia and Pamphylia actually were a double province at this time as a result of early reform measures instituted by Vespasian.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia Perge 1MJ—John Mark’s Departure
      Stacks Image 3037
      When the boat landed at Perge of Pamphylia on the southern coast of Asia, John Mark left the 1MJ mission team. Luke does not indicate why. Paul, however, interpreted John Mark’s departure as a defection from the mission team and an abandonment of the mission. Paul and Barnabas later would have a serious disagreement over the matter of John Mark that spit the mission team at the beginning of the second missionary journey.
      00:00
      00:00
  • 1MJ South Galatia—Aspendos
    • South Galatia Aspendos—Aspendos Blog
      Stacks Image 2774
      Read our journal about our visit to Aspendos from our base in Antalya, Turkey, as well as see additional pictures and a movie at the end of the blog. Click image to open another browser window to read blog, or click here.
    • South Galatia Aspendos—Theater
      Stacks Image 2780
      Aspendos was a close neighbor to Perge about 10 miles inland on the Eurymedon River, a busy port in ancient times, but not a city of great historical import. The city is famous, however, for its theater, perhaps the best-preserved from antiquity, originally seating about 7,000. The theater was designed and built in 155 B.C. by its noted Greek architect and resident, Zenon. The three-story skene or scaenae frons (stage), one of the few still surviving today, enveloped and completely enclosed the audience for unimpeded focus on the activities within its confines. A wooden partial ceiling leaned out over the cavea (seating area), but does not survive. The top tier of the structure reveals 58 post holes that secured beams for extension of the velarium (awning) that could be pulled out over the audience for even more shade when needed.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia Aspendos—Eurymedon River Bridge
      Stacks Image 2787
      When the Romans built a bridge over the fast-flowing Eurymedon River, Roman engineers angled the bridge strategically so that the turned piers slowed the water flowing downriver, and wedged-shaped masonry reinforcements on the central piers impeded the river undermining them. Seljuk Turks replaced the bridge in the 13th century but reused the ancient Roman foundations, as well as other Roman stone blocks. Thus, the rebuilt bridge followed closely the Roman design. The ancient Roman bridge, however, stood higher at its peak.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia Aspendos—Main Aqueduct
      Stacks Image 3044
      Aspendos has one of the most impressive Roman engineering accomplishments of the empire in its aqueduct system. Headwaters from two sources brought water near to Aspendos by a conventional channel of bridges and tunnels. The remaining mile, however, was the trick, as the water not only had to cross a low, swampy valley, but then also had to climb a steep and high slope up the acropolis to a holding tank. Roman engineers designed a complex combination of elevated, arched bridges to reduce the drop height to the bottom of the siphon (venters) and inverted siphons (following a “u” pattern rather than the tradition “n” pattern) with two unequally high, massive water towers on the north and south ends of the valley in a closed siphon system completely bled of air. These towers, at 131 feet, were almost as high as the famous Pont du Gard aqueduct in France (160 feet).
      00:00
      00:00
  • 1MJ South Galatia—Side
    • South Galatia Side—Side Blog
      Stacks Image 2884
      Read our journal about our visit to Side from our base in Antalya, Turkey, as well as see additional pictures and a movie at the end of the blog. Click the image or click here.
    • South Galatia Side—Archeological Site
      Stacks Image 2891
      Side today is a resort area that in ancient times was a port city about twelve miles from Aspendos. After occupation by Alexander the Great, Side became thoroughly Hellenistic in culture. The Roman general Pompey brought the city under Roman control in 67 B.C. Commercial prosperity in olive oil and port trade swelled the population to 60,000 in Paul's day. This port also was notable for its slave trade. The agora is square and has the ruins of the round Tyche and Fortuna temple. Some of today’s ruins date back to the second century A.D.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia Side—Archeological Museum
      Stacks Image 2898
      The museum at Side is housed in the ancient public baths area. While the museum is small, some of its holdings are most unusual among museums in Turkey. Of the significant displays, the most important is of several unusual inground Roman burials. (Romans normally cremated the bodies of the deceased and preserved the bones within a bone box.) Another significant display is a collection of Roman capalar anchors and other items recovered from the sea in the port area. A third significant display is one of the very few depictions we have of the myth of the punishment of Ixion, whose story illustrates multiple violations of fundamental guest-host social expectations (zenia). One violation was the revenge murder of his father-in-law over an ongoing dispute at a family feast, the first accusation of kin-slaying in Greek mythology. The other violation was of the hospitality of Zeus after Zeus had had pity on Ixion being spurned by all his neighbors and inviting him up to Mount Olympus. Ixion, however, failed to hide his lust for Zeus’s wife, another egregious violation of zenia codes. In his wrath, Zeus ordered Ixion bound to a winged, fiery wheel perpetually spinning across the heavens forever. The relief housed in the Side Museum depicts Ixion affixed to the fiery wheel.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia Side—Roman Milestone
      Stacks Image 2907
      During the construction of a resort hotel in the area of Side, a previously unknown bilingual Roman milestone was discovered still standing in situ. The milestone was placed during the proconsulship of Manius Aquillius, first governor of Asia, but incorrectly refers to Aquillius as “consul” rather than “proconsul.” The milestone also incorrectly identifies Aquillius as “governor of the Romans,” which, of course, he was not; he was governor of the Asians. The milestone marks Roman mile 331. The question is, from which origination city?
      00:00
      00:00
  • 1MJ South Galatia—Phaselis
    • South Galatia Phaselis—Three Natural Harbors
      Stacks Image 2924
      We encounter the Pamphylia and Lycia regions on Paul’s first missionary journey. Luke mentions the seaports of Perge on the way inland and Attalia (Antalya) on the return to Antioch. The Pamphylian-Lycian region had numerous other significant cities, especially on the coast, such as the ports of Side and Phaselis. Originally established by the Rhodians in the 700s BC, Phaselis was an important Lycian port supporting the commerce of Greece, Asia, Egypt, and Phoenicia. Framed by the Bey Mountains, this port rich in Greek and Roman history notably had three useable harbors still viewable today. One of the significant long-term problems for this city was being surrounded by swampy regions that plagued her citizenry with malaria and other diseases.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia Phaselis—Archeological Site
      Stacks Image 2931
      Ancient Phaselis was a port of Lycia just south of Attalia (Antalya) of Pamphylia. Remains of the aqueduct greet visitors in the parking area, which is next to the swamps that surround the site with the seashore right on the other side of the road. One walks up the ancient cardo (main street) past inscriptions documenting the Roman history of the site. The main road ends with Hadrian’s “Waterway Gate” leading into the south harbor area. The baths of Domitian along the cardo still show the dedicatory inscription over the main entrance. Other baths near the agora show the ancient system of steam-heating and also are near the theater with its spectacular view of the Bey Mountain range close by. Visitors easily access the harbor beaches. A long, steep climb up the cliffs near the south harbor beach reveals a breathtaking overview of the entrance to the harbor.
      00:00
      00:00
  • 1MJ South Galatia—Antioch of Pisidia
    • South Galatia AntiochP—Antioch of Pisidia Blog
      Stacks Image 2964
      Our time in this region is split across two days. Click the image to read our journal about our visit to the ancient ruins of Antioch of Pisidia, with pictures and a movie, or click here. For our visit the next morning to the Yalvaç Museum in the nearby modern city of Yalvaç, with pictures and a movie, click here.
    • South Galatia AntiochP—Mountains, Snow, Streams, Aqueducts
      Stacks Image 2971
      Aqueducts were great feats of Roman engineering using the arch and keystone architectural principle. Antioch of Pisidia is located in the Pisidian highlands surrounded by snow-capped mountains. This snow melt was the source of the mountain streams flowing down to the lowlands and for the Roman aqueducts. The remains of the aqueduct that supplied mountain snow melt to ancient Antioch of Pisidia still survive, but off the beaten track away from the city ruins.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia AntiochP—Theater, Basilica, Synagogue
      Stacks Image 2978
      The theater at Antioch of Pisidia is not in a good state of preservation but is situated almost in the heart of the city. This structure was the hub of ancient Antioch’s cultural life. To the north of the theater lie the remains of the Christian basilica. The New Testament scholar, William Ramsey, widely traveled throughout Asia Minor retracing the steps of Paul, made observations that led him to believe this basilica was built immediately over the location of the ancient Jewish synagogue of Antioch. The basilica is directly opposite the entrance to the temple of Augustus complex.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia AntiochP—Temple of Augustus
      Stacks Image 2985
      The temple of Augustus covered many acres, including a magnificent prophylon approaching the complex and claimed the highest spot overlooking the city of Antioch of Pisidia. The backside of the temple was carved straight into the bedrock wall. Emperor worship was as strong or stronger in Asia Minor than in any province of Rome.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia AntiochP—Paul’s 1MJ Visit
      Stacks Image 2992
      Paul preached in the synagogue at Antioch of Pisidia. Luke uses this sermon as one of thee example sermons of the preaching of the apostle Paul. He gives an example sermon on each missionary journey. Luke uses these three sample sermons to illustrate how Paul adapted his preaching to the specific audience. The content of the message changes radically, depending on whether the audience is Jewish (1MJ), pagan (2MJ), or Christian (3MJ). Here at Antioch of Pisidia, Luke demonstrates the content of Paul’s message when preaching to a Jewish audience. Notice the emphasis on the story of Israel and on the Jewish Scriptures.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia AntiochP—Yalvaç Archeological Museum
      Stacks Image 3324
      The archeological museum tells the history of ancient Anatolia and is in the modern city of Yalvaç, which lies literally adjacent to the ancient site of Antioch of Pisidia. The museum houses two famous inscriptions. One is the Paulus inscription, evidencing the political activity in Asia Minor of the well-connected Paulus family. Another inscription is the Res Gestae Divi Augusti, the last testament of the emperor Augustus.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia AntiochP—Paulus Inscription
      Stacks Image 3338
      The Paulus inscription on display in the Yalvaç Archeological Museum evidences the political activity in Asia Minor of the well-connected Paulus family. Paul encountered a member of this elite Roman family in Sergius Paulus, the proconsul of Cyprus. According to the account in Acts, the proconsul became a believer after the temporary blinding by Saul of his court magician, Elymas.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia AntiochP—Res Gestae Divi Augusti
      Stacks Image 3345
      The Res Gestae Divi Augusti on display in the Yalvaç Archeological Museum is the last will and testament of Augustus in which he bragged of his accomplishments toward the end of his reign, which he had inscribed in stone and placed across the empire. The testament basically chronicles the establishment of the foundations of the Roman empire. The principles and values espoused in this testament, such as the pax Romana, became the propaganda the Roman empire promoted for centuries.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia AntiochP—Roman Dog Statuette
      Stacks Image 3352
      The Yalvaç Archeological Museum has on display a most unusual second to third century A.D. Roman statuette of a dog. This (commemorative?) statuette is unusual because dogs normally were not considered pets in the ancient world, which is so unlike our modern world with its competition dog shows that draw adoring fans in the tens of thousands. In great contrast, ancient societies perceived dogs to be semi-wild animals. In large metropolitan areas, dogs often prowled the streets in packs. They potentially could be dangerous.
      Stacks Image 3359
      Dogs were used as deterrents to uninvited guests by being chained to stakes at the threshold of aristocratic homes. They also indirectly functioned as “doorbells” by their incessant barking when someone approached. This image is a mosaic depicting a dog used this way in the aristocratic home of the Tragic Poet in the ancient Roman town of Pompeii. At the bottom of the mosaic are the words of warning, Cave Canem, “Beware the Dog!”
      00:00
      00:00
  • 1MJ South Galatia—Iconium (Konya)
    • South Galatia Iconium—Iconium Blog
      Stacks Image 3094
      Read our journal about our visit to modern Konya, a heavily conservative Moslem city built directly on top of ancient Iconium, as well as the Konya Archeological Museum, with pictures and a movie. Click the image or click here.
    • South Galatia Iconium—Paul’s 1MJ Visit
      Stacks Image 3101
      The pattern of synagogue rejection on the first missionary journey established at the first stop at Salamis on the island of Cyprus now has become clear. Paul first tries to preach in the in synagogues if one is available. He inevitably stirs up opposition and is forced out of the synagogue and sometimes out of the city. God-fearing Gentiles attending synagogue services, however, are responding in significant numbers. In the standard pattern Luke develops in Acts, Paul is forced out of the Antioch of Pisidia synagogue by Jewish leaders there. These leaders then shadow him down to Iconium when they find out he has traveled there. Jewish leaders from Antioch again provoke opposition at Iconium as well.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia Iconium—Konya Archeological Museum
      Stacks Image 3364
      Konya is the modern city that sits on top of the ruins of the ancient city of Iconium. The Konya Archeological Museum has some outstanding artifacts. The courtyard is larger than most, and displays include important inscriptions, an ancient olive press, and other artifacts. The museum itself has an outstanding display of beautifully-executed Roman sarcophagi, bested only by the world-renowned museum in Antalya down on the coast. The delicate ruins of an infant burial, including jewelry, also is quite distinctive.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia Iconium—Konya Museum Inscriptions
      Stacks Image 3108
      The courtyard of the museum at Konya displays three important Roman inscriptions that document the existence of the ancient Roman cities of Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe. The Derbe inscription found in Derbe dates to A.D. 157, showing that this city existed at least a century after Paul had visited on the First Missionary Journey. Both the Lystra and Iconium inscriptions date to the second century A.D.
      00:00
      00:00
  • 1MJ South Galatia—Lystra
    • South Galatia Lystra—Lystra Blog
      Stacks Image 3127
      Read our journal about our visit to Lystra, as well as see additional pictures and a movie at the end of the blog. Click the image, or click here.
    • South Galatia Lystra—Ancient Tel
      Stacks Image 3133
      The tel of ancient Lystra rises up out of the valley plain, but never has been excavated. Tour buses never go there as a result, because nothing is to be seen, but the intrepid professor wants to stand where Paul stood and ponder the story. Why Paul went to Lystra is unclear, because the city was not on the main Roman road in the region. Paul clearly had departed from the beaten track. Was he trying to get away from agitators dogging him from Antioch who already had forced him out of Iconium? Did he have a personal acquaintance in Lystra he wanted to see? We simply do not know. In any case, Paul’s experiences at Lystra on the first missionary journey were quite dramatic, including being called a god and then enduring a brutal stoning.
      00:00
      00:00
  • 1MJ South Galatia—Derbe
    • South Galatia Derbe—Derbe Blog
      Stacks Image 3191
      Read our journal about our visit to the tel of Derbe in the late afternoon, as well as our visit the next morning to the archeological museum in the modern city of Karaman nearby, about fifteen miles away. The blog includes pictures and a movie at the end of the blog. For Derbe click image to open another browser window to read blog, or click here. For the Karaman Museum the next morning, click here.
    • South Galatia Derbe—Paul’s 1MJ Visit
      Stacks Image 3197
      The location of ancient Derbe used to be contended, but now the mound known as Kerti Höyük is the most likely spot. This mound is only fifteen miles from modern Karaman and close to the little village of Ekinözü. Two inscriptions mentioning Derbe recently found confirm this location. One inscription was found by Michael Ballance in 1956 on the side of the Kerti Höyük mound. Another is a fourth to fifth century inscription mentioning “Michael, bishop of Derbe” that was found about two and a half miles from Kerti Höyük.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia Derbe—Karaman Archeological Museum
      Stacks Image 3204
      The Karaman Archeological Museum is located in downtown Karaman, a modern city about fifteen miles from the mound of Derbe. The museum has a beautiful courtyard that winds all the way around the museum building. Out in the courtyard is one of the museum's most outstanding artifacts, the “Michael Inscription,” which documents a bishop of Derbe in the fourth to fifth century A.D., which indicates Christianity survived in this city for centuries after the apostle Paul’s visit.
      00:00
      00:00
  • 1MJ South Galatia—Attalia (Antalya)
    • South Galatia Attalia—Antalya Blog
      Stacks Image 3221
      Read our journal about our drive down to Antalya, the modern port of ancient Attalia, out of the highlands of Antioch of Pisidia. Late in the afternoon, we visited the famous Antalya Museum. The blog includes pictures and a movie at the end of the blog. Click image to open another browser window to read blog, or click here. We also took in the famous Antalya harbor and Hadrian’s Gate the next morning. For that blog, click here.
    • South Galatia Attalia—Harbor and Paul’s 1MJ Visit
      Stacks Image 3227
      The breakwaters of the modern harbor of Antalya follow the lines of the breakwaters of the Roman port of ancient Attalia. The waters of the harbor are so clear, you can see 30–40 feet down. The port of Attalia was the last stop of Paul and Barnabas on the first missionary journey before sailing home to Antioch of Syria. However, something quite strange happens at Attalia, if one pays close attention to the map of the first missionary journey.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia Attalia—Hadrian’s Gate
      Stacks Image 3234
      Hadrian’s Gate was built by the citizens of Attalia in honor of the emperor’s visit to their city in A.D. 130. This gate is the only surviving remains of ancient Attalia. The form is the standard triple arch, and had two stories, although the second story has been lost to time. The upper story probably housed statues of the emperor and his family. The gate had two towers on either side made of plain stone blocks, but one tower shows remodeling during the Seljuk period. A Plexiglas ramp is built over the stones of the original road that ran through the gate and allows one to peer down and see the road beneath.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia Attalia—Antalya Museum
      Stacks Image 3241
      The prize-winning Antalya Museum, one of the largest in Turkey, is gorgeous. The museum houses outstanding works of art and other items, but displays only about 5,000 of its 30,000 artifacts. The imperial statues, sarcophagi, and coins stand out among these holdings. Our favorite, however, hands down, is the marble masterpiece, “The Dancer,” which came from excavations at Perge. The delicate lines and consummate display of energetic movement in this work of art are beyond words in person.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia Attalia—Ancient Inscriptions Tour
      Stacks Image 3248
      Dr. Mark Wilson of the Asia Minor Research Center facilitated an epigraphy seminar in Antalya led by Professor Rosalinde Kearsley of Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia. Dr. Wilson led the group in a walking tour of old Antalya focused on some of the ancient inscriptions to be seen in the old city, particularly the Julia Sancta patroness inscription at Hadrian’s Gate. Interesting sights and history. The picture shows Dr. Wilson explaining a “squeeze,” an impression made of an inscription by squeezing damp paper material into the letter cavities in the stone for drying and later study.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia Attalia—Modern Antalya Life
      Stacks Image 3314
      The Antalya harbor continues to grow and develop its tourist tradition. The port is busy with tour boats ferrying passengers around the harbor for a view from the water. The high cliffs at water’s edge provide a breathtaking view of the beautiful seacoast framed by the Taurus Mountains off in the distance that surround the fertile Pamphylian plain irrigated for citrus crops and other produce. The spectacular ocean vistas make perfect backdrops for a parade of wedding parties doing bridal photo shoots in public.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia Attalia—Harbor Boat Ride
      Stacks Image 3262
      Antalya harbor tourist services offer mini-cruises around the harbor area and down the Pamphylian coastline. The steep cliffs offer staggering views of the coastline from above but amazing discoveries of caves and tunnels from below on the water. The most dramatic scene is coming around a cliff edge to be confronted by the roar of the fresh-water Lower Düden Falls crashing directly into the Mediterranean sea.
      00:00
      00:00
    • South Galatia Attalia—Antalya Aquarium
      Stacks Image 3269
      Antalya Aquarium boasts the world's biggest tunnel aquarium, and they are correct. The tunnel is a huge “U” shaped walkway that goes forever. The aquarium is wonderful, and worth the effort to get there. I learned of Demre Çay Agzi Channel eels that migrate all the way to our Gulf of Mexico after birth, but return to Demre Çay Agzi Channel to spawn, and during breeding migrations can switch between salt and fresh water. Fascinating! And I did not think we had any direct connection to Turkey!
      00:00
      00:00